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Quantitative Information Flow, Relations and Polymorphic Types
Clark, David and Hunt, Sebastian and Malacaria, Pasquale (2005) Quantitative Information Flow, Relations and Polymorphic Types. Journal of Logic and Computation, 15 (2). pp. 181-199.
This paper uses Shannon's information theory to give a quantitative definition of information flow in systems that transform inputs to outputs. For deterministic systems, the definition is shown to specialise to a simpler form when the information source and the known inputs jointly determine the inputs. For this special case, the definition is related to the classical security condition of non-interference and an equivalence is established between non-interference and independence of random variables. Quantitative information flow for deterministic systems is then presented in relational form. With this presentation, it is shown how relational parametricity can be used to derive upper and lower bounds on information flows through families of functions defined in the second order lambda calculus.
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